Author Topic: Hitachi HM55B compass module reader in C for Baby Orangutans  (Read 2368 times)

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Offline scottfromscottTopic starter

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Here is a reader in C for the Hitachi HM55B compass module to be used with the Pololu Baby Orangutan 328P robot controller. It will be used to orient a small autonomous solar PV tracker to either north or south. It may work with other Orangutans also with some modification. I have also attached a photo of the breadboard layout.

Code: [Select]
/*
   READ COMPASS ANGLE FROM THE PARALLAX HM55B DIGITAL COMPASS WITH THE POLOLU BABY ORANGUTAN 328P
   MAJORITY OF PROGRAM LOGIC: [email protected] WHO WROTE IT FOR THE ARDUINIO
   MODIFIED TO RUN ON THE BABY O BY ME: [email protected]
   SEE THE flash_angle() FUNCTION FOR AN EXPLANATION OF HOW THE RED USER LED FLASHES THE CURRENT ANGLE

   REFERENCES:
   http://www.parallax.com/Portals/0/Downloads/docs/prod/compshop/HM55BModDocs.pdf -- compass documentation
   http://www.parallax.com/Store/Sensors/CompassGPS/tabid/173/ProductID/98/List/0/Default.aspx?SortField=ProductName,ProductName -- product page
   http://arduino.cc/playground/HM55B -- killo's Arduino version
   http://forum.pololu.com -- general orangutan help
   http://www.pololu.com/docs/0J14 -- Baby O user's guide
   http://www.pololu.com/docs/pdf/0J20/pololu_avr_library.pdf
   http://www.pololu.com/docs/pdf/0J18/avr_library_commands.pdf
*/

#define F_CPU 20000000UL // Baby Orangutan frequency (20MHz)

#include <math.h>
#include <avr/io.h>
#include <util/delay.h> // uses F_CPU to achieve us and ms delays
#include <pololu/orangutan.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

// data connections:
//
// BABY O PINS <==> HM55B PINS
// 
//   PB0:IO_B0 <==> #4:CLK
//   PB1:IO_B1 <==> #5/Enable
//   PB2:IO_B2 <==> #1:Dout,#2:Din

// orangutan library defines used:
//
// for set_digital_output(), LOW, HIGH
// for set_digital_input() -- PULL_UP_ENABLED - enable pull-up resistor

float compass_angle = 999; // global variable available for other modules use

// for calibration: print out the compass 16-segment compass template at
// http://www.parallax.com/Portals/0/Downloads/docs/prod/compshop/HM55BModDocs.pdf
// line up north with a pocket compass and tape the template to a table
// this compass outputs negative angles for all westerly directions (180..359 -> -180..-1)
// so label the template as follows:
// 180(-180), 202.5(-157.5), 225(-135), 247.5(-112.5), 270(-90), 292.5(-67.5), 315(-45), 337.5(-22.5)
// set the Baby O powered HM55B in position facing south on compass template
// set calibrate_mode below to 1, then build and run this program
// you will now determine the compass reading and offset for each of 16 angles:
// starting with 180 degrees, read and write down the template angle, the compass reading
// and the offset. Repeat for all 16 angles. The offset for the reading will be a + or -
// number added to the reading to match the template angle-- eg. for a template angle of -90,
// where the reading is -115, the offset would be 25 -- -90 = -115 + 25
// now set calibrate_mode to 1 and complete the procedure above.
//
// Next, enter these values in the raw[] and offsets[] arrays in the corrected() function below
// the raw[] array is filled left to right, in negative to positive angles order
// the arrays are linked by their indices -- eg. offsets[2] goes with raw[2]
// in addition to the 16 values you just entered in each array above, you must do the following:
// add -180 at the beginning and 180 at the end of the raw[] array declaration;
// eg.    =>   int raw[18] = {-180, ...(your 16 values)..., 180};
// you must also add corresponding offset values for these to the offsets[] array
// which can easily be calculated with any spreadsheet program as follows:
// the offset for for -180 degrees...
// col A: template angle; col B: reading; col c: offset
// A1: 157.5, B1: (reading for 157.5), C1: (offset) 
// B2: -180, C2: =(B2-B1)*(C3-C1)/(B3-B1)+C1
// A3: -180, B3: (reading for -180), C3: (offset)
//
// the offset for for 180 degrees...same as above but change B2 to 180
//
// so if offset for -180 is -4.2 and -23 for 180, then your offsets array declaration would look as follows
// eg. => int offsets[18] = {-4.2, ...(your 16 offsets)..., -23};
//
// once your arrays are complete you may reset calibrate_mode to 0 below
// and rebuild and test your completed program which should more accurately
// display the compass angles
   
int calibrate_mode = 0; //0 = use linear interpolation tables; 1 = flash raw angle values for calibration

//// FUNCTIONS

void delayms( uint16_t millis )
{
   while(millis)
   {
      _delay_ms(1);
      millis--;
   }
}

void ShiftOut(int Value, int BitsCount)
{
   for(int i = BitsCount; i >= 0; i--)
   {
      set_digital_output(IO_B0, HIGH);
      if ((Value & 1 << i) == ( 1 << i)) set_digital_output(IO_B2, HIGH); // 1
      else set_digital_output(IO_B2, LOW); // 0
      set_digital_output(IO_B0, LOW);
      delayMicroseconds(1);
   }
}

int ShiftIn(int BitsCount)
{
   int ShiftIn_result, i;
   ShiftIn_result = 0;
   set_digital_input(IO_B2, PULL_UP_ENABLED);
   for(i = BitsCount; i >= 0; i--)
   {
      set_digital_output(IO_B0, HIGH);
      delayMicroseconds(1);
      if (is_digital_input_high(IO_B2)) ShiftIn_result = (ShiftIn_result << 1) + 1;
      else ShiftIn_result = (ShiftIn_result << 1) + 0;
      set_digital_output(IO_B0, LOW);
      delayMicroseconds(1);
   }
   if ((ShiftIn_result & 1 << 11) == 1 << 11) ShiftIn_result = (0B11111000 << 8) | ShiftIn_result;
   return ShiftIn_result;
}

void setup()
{
   set_digital_output(IO_B1, HIGH); // not enabled initially
   set_digital_output(IO_B0, LOW); // clock is low initially
}

void HM55B_Reset()
{
   set_digital_output(IO_B1, LOW);
   ShiftOut(0B0000, 3); // send nibble of zeros
   set_digital_output(IO_B1, HIGH);
}

void HM55B_StartMeasurementCommand()
{
   set_digital_output(IO_B1, LOW);
   ShiftOut(0B1000, 3);
}

int HM55B_ReadCommand()
{
   int result = 0;
   set_digital_output(IO_B1, HIGH);
   set_digital_output(IO_B1, LOW);
   ShiftOut(0B1100, 3);
   result = ShiftIn(3);
   return result;
}

float get_compass_angle()
{
   float X_Data = 0, Y_Data = 0, angle = 0; // initialize to avoid compiler warning
   int HM55B_result; // status flag

   HM55B_StartMeasurementCommand(); // necessary!!
   delayms(40); // the data is 40ms later ready
   HM55B_result = HM55B_ReadCommand();
   while(HM55B_result != 0B1100) HM55B_result = HM55B_ReadCommand(); // poll until ready status
   X_Data = ShiftIn(11); // Field strength in X
   Y_Data = ShiftIn(11); // and Y direction
   set_digital_output(IO_B1, HIGH); // ok deselect chip
   angle = 180 * (atan2(-1 * Y_Data , X_Data) / M_PI);
   return(angle);
}
   
// I added the next 2 modules to use the red LED to aid reading and calibrating the compass
// If you don't need them, delete them and flash_angle() and delayms() references from main()

void flash_digit_value(int digit)
{
   // flash LED 'digit value' times for each digit in angle
   int counter;

   if(digit==0) digit = 10; // special case for 0
   
   for(counter=1;counter<=digit;counter++)
   {
      set_digital_output(IO_D1, HIGH); // LED on
  delayms(200);
      set_digital_output(IO_D1, LOW); // LED off
  delayms(200);
   }
   delayms(1000); // indicates end of digit
}

void flash_angle(float angle)
{
   // LED flashes indicate angle in degrees 0..359 by default
   // 1 flash -> 1, 2 flashes -> 2, .. 9 flashes -> 9, BUT 10 flashes -> 0 (special case)
   // ex. angle = 037 degrees -> 10 flashes + pause + 3 flashes + pause + 7 flashes + pause
   // ex. angle = -037 degrees (same as above but followed by 1 flash for - sign)
   // (readings repeat every 6 seconds)

   int ones, tens, hundreds;
   int uangle = abs(angle);
   hundreds = (int)(uangle/100);
   tens = (int)((uangle - hundreds*100)/10);
   ones = uangle - tens*10 - hundreds*100;
   flash_digit_value(hundreds);
   flash_digit_value(tens);
   flash_digit_value(ones);
   if(angle<0) flash_digit_value(1); // indicate negative angle
}

float adjusted(float myangle)
{
   // adjust raw angle reading by adding an offset
   // these are values from my testing, yours will be different
   // 16 offsets are determined by comparing template angles with HM55B readings; the first and last offsets
   // are determined by linear interpolation
   //                 { -180, ... your 16 readings here ..., 180);
   float raw[18] =    {  -180,-175, -152, -137,-126,-115,-106,-99,  -89, 9,   68, 90,  100,111,  125,141, 164,  180};
   float offsets[18] ={ -4.98,  -5, -5.5,    2,13.5,  25,38.5, 54, 66.5,-9,-45.5,-45,-32.5,-21,-12.5, -6,-6.5,-5.83};
   //                  {-4.98, ..., -5.83} these two values computed with spreadsheet   
   int index = 0;
   float offset;

   for(index=17;index>0;index--) if(myangle>=raw[index-1]) break;

   // do linear interpolation...

   offset = (myangle-raw[index-1])*(offsets[index]-offsets[index-1])/(raw[index]-raw[index-1])+offsets[index-1];

   if(calibrate_mode) return(myangle); // return raw angle for calibration
   else return(myangle+offset<0?myangle+offset+360:myangle+offset); // return calibrated angle 000..359
}

int main()
{
   int reading;
   while(1)
   {
      compass_angle = 0;
      for(reading=1;reading<=100;reading++) //get 100 readings, then average...
  {
     setup();
         HM55B_Reset();
         compass_angle += get_compass_angle();
  }
  compass_angle /= 100;
      // now lookup the angle in the lookup table...
      compass_angle = adjusted(compass_angle);
      flash_angle(compass_angle);
      delayms(2000); // pause before next reading
   }
   return 0;
}

Offline dsikar

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Re: Hitachi HM55B compass module reader in C for Baby Orangutans
« Reply #1 on: December 26, 2010, 12:54:58 AM »
Hi Scott,

First of all, thanks for posting your calibration routine.

I would like to provide feedback, based on findings I made while studying the HM55B and your code.

I tested 3 HM55Bs and found a generic rule for determining start and end of your raw array by locating adjacent read values closest to 180 where the sign changes from positive to negative. In some devices this might be between actual 180 and 202.5 degrees, others, actual 157.5 and 180 and so on. These provide the last and first elements of your initial raw array.

I found generic rules for "padding" your raw and offsets arrays:

1. On the raw array find the shortest angle between elements 1 and 16. In your example this is equal to 21 ~ 185 (-175) - 164.

2. Value of raw array index 0 becomes value of index 1 minus 21. Value of raw array index 17 becomes value of index 16 plus 21. Noting that counterclockwise -196 and -175 are equivalent to clockwise 164 and 185.

3. Value of offsets array index 0 becomes value of index 16. Value of offsets array index 17 becomes value of index 1. Noting that raw index 0 represents the same reading as raw index 16 and raw index 1 represents the same reading as raw index 17.

Your arrays can now be represented as:

Code: [Select]
  float raw[18] =    {-196, -175, -152, -137, -126, -115, -106, -99, -89, 9, 68, 90, 100, 111, 125, 141, 164, 185};
   float offsets[18] ={-6.5, -5, -5.5, 2, 13.5, 25, 38.5, 54, 66.5, -9, -45.5, -45, -32.5, -21, -12.5, -6, -6.5, -5};

Solving this equation for y, which is the unknown value at x



for these two sets

X0 = 164 Y0 = -6.5
X = 180 Y = -5.4
X1 = 185 Y1 = -5

X0 = -196 Y0 = -6.5
X = -180 Y = -5.4
X1 = -175 Y1 = -5

means that a linear interpolation for values +180 or -180 would return an offset of -5.4, effectively pointing towards the same direction.

For a reading of 180, your algorithm would return 174.6. For a reading of -180, your algorithm would obtain -185.4, add 360 then also return 174.6.

Best regards,

Daniel

PS Having revisited the problem, I found a simpler way to obtain the raw "padded" values, offsets array included for the record. Here is what I now have in my code:

Code: [Select]
    // 0riginal 16 calibration readings: -154, -120, -101, -89, -78, -64, -40, -2, 41, 66, 80, 91, 101, 112, 129, 158.
    // raw[0] = raw[16] - 360;
    // raw[17] = raw[1] + 360;
    float raw[18] = {-202, -154, -120, -101, -89, -78, -64, -40, -2, 41, 66, 80, 91, 101, 112, 129, 158, 206};

    // Original offsets: -3.5, -15, -11.5, -1, 10.5, 19, 17.5, 2, -18.5, -21, -12.5, -1, 11.5, 23, 28.5, 22.
    // offsets[0] = offsets[16];
    // offsets[17] = offsets[1];
    float offsets[18] = {22, -3.5, -15, -11.5, -1, 10.5, 19, 17.5, 2, -18.5, -21, -12.5, -1, 11.5, 23, 28.5, 22, -3.5};

« Last Edit: December 28, 2010, 08:09:59 PM by dsikar »

 


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