English is not my native language, so I hope that I can make myself clear.
When your planning on becoming an aircraft engineer you probably know this.
Its some years ago since I had this in school so correct my when I make a mistake.
How an aircraft flies is easy on paper:
That’s all. If you stick to this rule/law your fine and your aircraft will take off.
lift = half the air density*velocity to the power of 2* lift coefficient*surface size
To get your plane off the ground all these components play there role. Its a bit difficult to alter the density of the air your trying to fly in, so you have the other components left to influence. As you can see speed is a very important factor because its to the power of 2. Not enough speed will cause a low speed stall. But to much speed gets you a high speed stall.
The lift coefficient is a bit of a though one. Its your design that determines it. The profile of your wing. Just check the difference of wing design on a glider compared to an F16. The difference is the speed that it is supposed to fly. (And an F16 can go above the speed of sound, that changes the rule of lift, but that’s an other topic.)
The surface is how much effective wing you have. To small wings will not work, to big wings will give you extra resistance in the air and a heavier construction. You need more lift than the weight of your plane off course.
The propeller works exactly like a wing. So the rpm of the propeller is important, because it to to get enough lift/trust to get your plane moving. But to much rpm results in a high speed stall, and your lift/thrust is gone again. So just throw “some rpm” at a propeller and hope it “goes flying magically” is not going to work I am afraid. To much rpm is as bad as to less. High speed stall will take away your lift/trust too. And you have to keep in mind that when you plane is standing still, the airspeed is (how to say this in English) from the side of you propeller. When your plan gains speed the vector changes because you get airspeed from the front. Its something to keep in mind. The risk is loosing trust again because the angle of attack changes. Its like when you take off with your plane and you would directly pull it on his tail it will crash because of this stall.
I have not read the whole threat but my advice would be, get a good design. That profile of the wings is very important. You probably get result by trail and error but that is kind of risky because you have no idea what it does at what speed. So you can end up with a high speed stall just after take off and crash. So when your going for the trail and error approach, don’t expect to take off your first try and more important, make sure you don’t kill people in case you crash!
Same with propellers, to get optimal performance you need the optimal airspeed as its “to the power of 2“ important. And the airspeed get more high to the tips of the propeller. So the lift coefficient changes from the axle to the tip of the propeller.
More weight means you need more lift to get off the ground. During operation you can only change the speed, so it means you need more speed to get of the runway. That means you need more fuel. More fuel == more weight, etc. that is why those airlines are nagging so much about weight.
Turbine engines is an interesting topic too, but you have to understand propellers very good first. The compressor and turbine are like propellers in theory.
Hope this helps.