This chip is relatively old yet very handy(Doesn't require any encoder/decoder circuitry/algorithms, just standard analog interfacing):http://www.8085projects.info/datasheets/APR9600.PDF
I'm not sure if they are still in production, but you can find some on Ebay.
Stores about 8 messages, with adjustable sampling rate and adjustable message length(NOTE: The two are inversely proportional to each other). But if you have it on the lowest sampling rate, you can record more or less a minute per message(8 minutes total for each Message slot).
Of course you would have to record from your computer's speakers into the microphone input on the chip, which can be done via a phono jack from your sound card output to the chip's input(I wouldn't recommend as it puts your sound card at risk).