I'm currently working on a university project that we are gonna make a shooter that tries to shoot a golf ball to the target basket by trial and errors. The platform is flat except a simple linear obstacle and approximately 1m2. The shooter and the basket is fixed on the two opposite side of the platform for every shooting process. I'm searching a distance sensor that will be constructed on the line of the basket and measures the vertical distance of the passing golf balls' trajectory to the left side of the platform. We will use this measurement to understand how far the ball has passed from the basket and according to this result, the shooter will try another rational shoot.
Ultrasonic sensors first came to the mind, but I'm worried about their low sample rate that the sensor can skip the ball. The velocity of the ball is considered to be about 2m/s.
Which sensor or sensor type can you suggest for this situation? Any comment will be appreciated.