Well, ARM A8 processors are pretty cool. They are what is inside of Gumstix and the like. the problem with the one you showed me is that it isn't set up for robotics applications. For example, there don't appear to be many ADCs or PWM outputs. It is likely, though, that as long as your cameras are small enough and your framerate can be low enough, an A8 can probably handle 2. Just don't expect frame rates much about 1 or 2 frames per second!
You'll almost certainly need a secondary piece of hardware to actually interface with the robot, especially if you want to do vision. So, an A8 based computer is fine, but you still have the problem of moving the motors and the like.
Yes, it is possible to burn matlab code directly. This requires the MATLAB Embedded Toolkit, which I'm not too familiar with.