Mostly good, although I'd just like to say that thrust bearings can use either balls or needles, so the description of just a ball or needle bearing can sometimes be misleading. Not your fault though, I think it's quite common to assume that it's a regular bearing, if it's a thrust bearing (or other kind) then it'll be explicitly stated. I personally think of it as a function of the contact surfaces (ball, needle or sliding) and the construction of the casing (regular, thrust, tapered or spherical). That said, your descriptions are fairly good, although if I may offer a terminology suggestion, the terms axial and radial force may help make things a bit clearer.
On a continuum, ball bearings can run faster than needles, which can run faster than bushings/washers, then just go back up the chain for the amount of force that each of them can withstand (greater contact area and all that).
Regular bearings can withstand radial forces acting on the shaft, but only relatively low axial forces, thrust bearings are the opposite. Tapered bearings can withstand axial forces in one direction as well as radial forces, but not as well as their regular/thrust bearing counterparts. Spherical bearings are like back to back tapered bearings, but are more complex and expensive.
Personally, given the greater losses due to friction (and resulting wear) from using use bushings/washers, I only use them where:
* The axle is expected to remain stationary for the majority of its life, and if it does move, that it'll do so slowly.
* I simply don't have space for a bearing.
Those're my personal rules though, and I have seen cases where washers have been used in dynamic situations. Still not my first choice though.
Can't really say whether two washers + grease is a reasonable substitute without knowing your application, but if it's for your suspension then I'd just go with thrust bearings. If you do have to do it though, definitely two washers unless the surfaces pushing against said washers are both harder and smoother than the washers.