For scientific computing, especially numerical analysis, there are still some very large packages and systems that use FORTRAN. These are the kinds of systems where you provide parameters in, the system crunches numbers (sometimes for a long time,) and then results in the form of other numbers come out. Batch computing, on server-type computers. Weather prediction, mechanical analysis, simulated nuclear bombs, that kind of thing.
I would be very surprised if any signficiant new development is done in FORTRAN these days. Also, FORTRAN sucks at string/text processing, or real-time processing, or interfacing to any kind of modern devices, so unless you're specifically into the scientific computing part, you should probably only do minimum effort to pass the exam on that particular language :-)
The sweet spot for embedded development (code that runs inside engines, motion control, etc) is C, with some amount of C++.
The sweet spot for applications that interface with users is somewhere between Java, C#, and Visual Basic, but C++ is also used.
The sweet spot for servers that back web pages is somewhere in the Ruby, PHP, Python space, with an also-ran by Java and C#.
The sweet spot for complex systems with to-the-metal performance requirements is C++.
The sweet spot for complex, distributed systems is Erlang, with also-rans by Java and C++.