Batteries are generally rated with a "C" rating, which tells you how much you can draw as a multiple of the amp-hour rating. Thus, if you have a battery rated at 5 Ah, and it has a C rating of 20C, then you can draw 100 Amps from the battery (assuming the rating is proper and not "padded for marketing purposes.")
Most Lead/Acid, NiCad, and NiMH batteries don't really like being used with a current draw above 1C, although it varies a little bit based on specifics of the battery in question. See if you can get a specification from the manufacturer of your battery.
The other question is time of charging. Lead/Acid can be quick-charged to some extent. NiCd and NiHM don't like quick charging at all -- trickling at 1/10th C is often best for them, which means it takes forever to charge. Again, this varies somewhat with specific battery chemistry, so check the specs from the manufacturer.
LiPo and LiFePO4 batteries are generally made for very high current draw (C ratings from 3C to 100C) and reasonably quick charging (1C or 2C charge rate without damage.) However, Lithium-based batteries do not like being kept at their top charge rate -- if you want a "maintenance charge" or "float charge" then it should be at lower than max charge.
So, if you can tell us what type of battery you have, and ideally find the data from the manufacturer, we could answer your question much better.
For example, car batteries are sometimes rated with "CCA" (cold cranking amps) which is a measure of how many amps the battery can generate at the freezing point for some short amount of time. Often, that rating corresponds to a C rating of 10 or more -- but the actual capacity you get out of the battery at that draw is a small fraction of the rated capacity. You may run the battery down in a minute or two...