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The voltage from the adapter should be ~ 5V higher than the voltage of the battery and the amperage of the adapter should be < 50% of the battery's
Charging lead-acid batteries with a power supplyLead-acid batteries can be charged manually with a commercial power supply featuring voltage regulation and current limiting. Calculate the charge voltage according to the number of cells and desired voltage limit. Charging a 12-volt battery (6 cells) at a cell voltage limit of 2.40V, for example, would require a voltage setting of 14.40V.The charge current for small lead-acid batteries should be set between 10% and 30% of the rated capacity (30% of a 2Ah battery would be 600mA). Larger batteries, such as those used in the automotive industry, are generally charged at lower current ratings. Cells constructed of a non-antimonial lead grid material allow higher charge currents but have a lower capacity. The cylindrical Cyclone is sealed and can sustain a pressure of up to 3.5 Bar (50 psi). A pressurized cell assists in the recombination of gases.Observe the battery temperature, voltage and current during charge. Charge only at ambient temperatures and in a ventilated room. Once the battery is fully charged and the current has dropped to 3% of the rated current, the charge is completed. A good car battery will drop to about 40mA when fully charged; a bad battery may not fall below 100mA.After full charge, remove the battery from the charger. If float charge is needed for operational readiness, lower the charge voltage to about 13.50V (2.25V/cell). Most chargers perform this function automatically. The float charge can be applied for an unlimited time.
from what I've seen, the voltage on a charge is about 1/3 higher than battery voltage. IE 12v battery charged with 16v chargercellphones have LION batteries, so they're special
can't he use a trickel charge were the voltage is the same as the battery
also i believe that there is a very simple circuit that makes an led light up while the battery is charging, and when the battery reaches the same voltage as the charger, the led goes out. I have one somewhere it is literally just 2 resistors and an led ill try to find it tomorrow, it came from an electric shaver, most of them have this type of facility.