Hey Jack! Welcome to the forum!
I had the idea of making the EEE a robot brain not too long ago myself (http://www.societyofrobots.com/robotforum/index.php?topic=2737.0
) and I have to say I am eager to know if you pull it off.
I have significant experience with VEX - any part of it can be ran by a micro controller - you just need to know how to wire it. It was actually done well and none of the motors, servos, or sensors prevent you in any way from using it with another micro controller.
As for a wireless center to read sensor values and then respond, check out Sun's Sun Spots. Sun, the creator of Java, sells these for 300 dollars. It consists of a base station and 2 "sun spots". The sun spots have multiple sensors in them - including accelerometers and gyroscopes. While my friends have worked with them I myself am yet to get a chance to do anything with them myself so I can't attest to their quality.
Your project interests me though. Keep me posted!