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While charging, the voltage of the solar cell should always remain atleast 1V higher than the battery. This is to ensure a proper and full charge. So if your battery that needs charging is 3-4V, then a 6V solar cell should be fine.
The time it takes to charge a battery: this depends on the current output from the solar cell and how many mAh you're battery is. So if you're battery is 1000mAh and your solar cell can output a max of 30mA then:1000mAh/30mA = 33.333...hours = 1.4 daysthe quickest charge rate would be 1.4 days for 1000mAh.
If you don't mind cooking the battery to pieces, that is
No, there's a loss in the charging process, so it would be roughly:1000mAh/30mA*1.5 = 50h = 2 days+Depending on the chemistry of the battery, it may even take longer, when charging with such a low current and some cells will be destroyed - don't even attempt to treat a lithium cell this way, or it will be cross on you and do bad stuff to you when you aren't looking (like *you tortured me, now it's my turn, muahahaaaa* - probably even with bad theme music).