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don't do something over your head. UART is (genneraly accepted in hobby use as) tethered RS232, i'm sure you don't want a wire dangling out of your flying thing, and a big hook of wire at the other end.there are other wireless communication protocols. look into the GSM suite - CDMA, GPRS. or build your own radio protocol.
1 km is really long but some protocols will work at that range. Or you can get RS232 extenders relatively cheap. Our Telecom guys use them to get rs232 signals to travel over a mile on twisted pair. If you get a twisted pair cable and use an extender you could do it. Hmm most need to be powered but it's just a DC input so you might be able to put them on batteries. The unpowered ones have lower ranges. If you look hard enough you might be able to find one that could be powered at one end and unpowered at the UAV end.The other option is like RS485 or RS422 those both have longer ranges and you can get RS485/422 to 232 converters easily. Might even be able to find a TTL level to RS485 converter to cut down on cost a bit. Just a note on protocols. UART is a communication protocol. RS232/485/422 are all transmission protocols. You can easily use more then one transmission protocol without to much processing going on but to use more then one communication protocol things get crazy. Like to transmit with UART and Receive with I2C.
A 'repeater' is a device used to accept a weak signal, clean it and boost it, then retransmit it. They are useful for long distance transmissions.For 1km, sounds like you need a high powered transmitter. If you are going wireless, you'll need a license. I have one, basically you study for a few weeks, take a test, and wallah they give you a card.What kind of data are we talking about?
mmm i was thinking ,, why dont u use 10 rf modules, each one is rated for 100 meters maximum range(operating at 12 volts)so using 10 you get 1 km ,,plus its wireless...the problem is that you have to put these stuff in some secure places and provide 12 volts all time,,
would work if the receiver takes in data then sends it out byte by byte and the originator pauses for one byte after each transmission.