Yes, the thing you are looking to purchase is just a terminal to program. You will need a separate circuit board to place the chip in. You will most likely need a 16 pin DIP or whatever socket to solder into place.
Motors and such, you will need to study the data sheet of your chip to figure out where you want to put it. I am not sure, but the chip may have a PWM pin. You would then have to decide if you just want to turn the motor on/off, or if you want to vary the speed of the motor with the PWM. It may do some good to do a little studying of IC chips and microcontrollers before you get started. The little time you spend educating yourself will save you a lot on your robot and reallly keep down the frustration
In terms of sensors, it depends on what you get. Some just require power, which can be hooked to the power pin of your microcontroller, and maybe one I/O port. You then control your sensor by sending whatever information through that specific pin.
In terms of what going where, you just have to do a little bit of work and everything should fall into place.