Universal Asynchronous Receive and Transmit.
It works just like a serial port on a computer but the voltage levels are different.
The basic concept is you can connect two items together (ie MCUs or something like an LCD module) and then one's transmit line is connected to the others receive line and they can communicate. Ground is needed so everyone can understand the voltages being sent back and forth. UART is a means of sending bits back and forth.