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Pullup ResistorsOften it is useful to steer an input pin to a known state if no input is present. This can be done by adding a pullup resistor (to +5V), or pulldown resistor (resistor to ground) on the input, with 10K being a common value.There are also convenient 20K pullup resistors built into the Atmega chip that can be accessed from software. These built-in pullup resistors are accessed in the following manner.pinMode(pin, INPUT); // set pin to inputdigitalWrite(pin, HIGH); // turn on pullup resistorsNote that the pullup resistors provide enough current to dimly light an LED connected to a pin that has been configured as an input. If LED's in a project seem to be working, but very dimly, this is likely what is going on, and the programmer has forgotten to use pinMode() to set the pins to outputs.Note also that the pullup resistors are controlled by the same registers (internal chip memory locations) that control whether a pin is HIGH or LOW. Consequently a pin that is configured to have pullup resistors turned on when the pin is an INPUT, will have the pin configured as HIGH if the pin is then swtiched to an OUTPUT with pinMode(). This works in the other direction as well, and an output pin that is left in a HIGH state will have the pullup resistors set if switched to an input with pinMode().
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