Author Topic: My first CNC machine Arduino Mega controlled!!!!  (Read 19855 times)

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Offline aventgpsTopic starter

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My first CNC machine Arduino Mega controlled!!!!
« on: November 16, 2009, 12:47:51 AM »







now i have to design the electronics placements...!!!

it works very well   ;D

Offline SmAsH

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Re: My first CNC machine Arduino Mega controlled!!!!
« Reply #1 on: November 16, 2009, 03:43:40 AM »
That looks really cool, is drawing all it can do?
Also, are you making this open source, posting code etc...?
Howdy

Offline Joker94

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Re: My first CNC machine Arduino Mega controlled!!!!
« Reply #2 on: November 16, 2009, 04:18:10 AM »
very impressive, well done ;D

Offline aventgpsTopic starter

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Re: My first CNC machine Arduino Mega controlled!!!!
« Reply #3 on: November 17, 2009, 11:49:21 AM »
NEW CABLE ARRAY AND CUT TEST





Offline galannthegreat

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Re: My first CNC machine Arduino Mega controlled!!!!
« Reply #4 on: November 17, 2009, 12:03:15 PM »
Very nicely done.
Kurt

Offline aventgpsTopic starter

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Re: My first CNC machine Arduino Mega controlled!!!!
« Reply #5 on: November 17, 2009, 05:37:52 PM »
thanks for your coments, now i am going to redesign the tool holder on the z axix, in order to make it more precise..... i will be posting codes and graphics in my blog..... http://aventgps.blogspot.com

is in spanish but please write comments as you wish.....

Offline Hadamard

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Re: My first CNC machine Arduino Mega controlled!!!!
« Reply #6 on: November 17, 2009, 10:35:55 PM »
Sweet robot (or drawing machine)! Keep up the good work.
Check out my robot projects at: http://robot-place.blogspot.com/

Offline gaurav.p

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Re: My first CNC machine Arduino Mega controlled!!!!
« Reply #7 on: November 17, 2009, 11:36:25 PM »
gr8 job dude ..........need to learn spanish from now :P
Big Things Come In Small Packages!!!

Offline SmAsH

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Re: My first CNC machine Arduino Mega controlled!!!!
« Reply #8 on: November 18, 2009, 01:17:40 AM »
It looks great and cuts really well too!
Howdy

Offline aventgpsTopic starter

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Re: My first CNC machine Arduino Mega controlled!!!!
« Reply #9 on: November 19, 2009, 10:31:37 PM »
THANKS FOR THE COMENTS......... YO DONT NEED TO LEARN SPANISH HEHEHE...

THIS IS MY Z AXIS REDESIGNED....


Offline aventgpsTopic starter

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Re: My first CNC machine Arduino Mega controlled!!!!
« Reply #10 on: November 19, 2009, 10:37:38 PM »
ARDUINO SIDE CODES...

Quote
// Arduino G-code Interpreter
// v1.0 Carlos guilarte y diego colonnello...
// Modificado para manejar tres ejes en un cnc chimbo... jejeje

#include <HardwareSerial.h>

//our command string
#define COMMAND_SIZE 128
char palabra[COMMAND_SIZE];
byte serial_count;
int no_data = 0;

void setup()
{
   //Do startup stuff here
   Serial.begin(19200);
   Serial.println("start");
   
   //other initialization.
   init_process_string();
   init_steppers();
   
}

void loop()
{
   char c;
   
   //keep it hot!


   //read in characters if we got them.
   if (Serial.available() > 0)
   {
      c = Serial.read();
      no_data = 0;
      
      //newlines are ends of commands.
      if (c != '\n')
      {
         palabra[serial_count] = c;
         serial_count++;
      }
   }
   //mark no data.
   else
   {
      no_data++;
      delayMicroseconds(100);
   }

   //if theres a pause or we got a real command, do it
   if (serial_count && (c == '\n' || no_data > 100))
   {
      //process our command!
      process_string(palabra, serial_count);

      //clear command.
      init_process_string();
   }

   //no data?  turn off steppers
   if (no_data > 1000)
     disable_steppers();
}


Quote

// define the parameters of our machine.
#define X_STEPS_PER_INCH 4800
#define X_STEPS_PER_MM   188.97
#define X_MOTOR_STEPS    200

#define Y_STEPS_PER_INCH 4800
#define Y_STEPS_PER_MM   188.97
#define Y_MOTOR_STEPS    200

#define Z_STEPS_PER_INCH 4800
#define Z_STEPS_PER_MM   188.97
#define Z_MOTOR_STEPS    200

//our maximum feedrates
#define FAST_XY_FEEDRATE 100
#define FAST_Z_FEEDRATE  100

// Units in curve section
#define CURVE_SECTION_INCHES 0.019685
#define CURVE_SECTION_MM 0.5

// Set to one if sensor outputs inverting (ie: 1 means open, 0 means closed)
// RepRap opto endstops are *not* inverting.
#define SENSORS_INVERTING 0

// How many temperature samples to take.  each sample takes about 100 usecs.


/****************************************************************************************
* digital i/o pin assignment
*
* this uses the undocumented feature of Arduino - pins 14-19 correspond to analog 0-5
****************************************************************************************/

//cartesian bot pins
#define X_STEP_PIN 8
#define X_DIR_PIN 9
#define X_MIN_PIN 4
#define X_MAX_PIN 2
#define X_ENABLE_PIN 15

#define Y_STEP_PIN 10
#define Y_DIR_PIN 11
#define Y_MIN_PIN 3
#define Y_MAX_PIN 5
#define Y_ENABLE_PIN 15

#define Z_STEP_PIN 12
#define Z_DIR_PIN 13
#define Z_MIN_PIN 7
#define Z_MAX_PIN 6
#define Z_ENABLE_PIN 15




Quote
// our point structure to make things nice.
struct LongPoint {
   long x;
   long y;
    long z;
};

struct FloatPoint {
   float x;
   float y;
    float z;
};

FloatPoint current_units;
FloatPoint target_units;
FloatPoint delta_units;

FloatPoint current_steps;
FloatPoint target_steps;
FloatPoint delta_steps;

boolean abs_mode = false;   //0 = incremental; 1 = absolute

//default to inches for units
float x_units = X_STEPS_PER_INCH;
float y_units = Y_STEPS_PER_INCH;
float z_units = Z_STEPS_PER_INCH;
float curve_section = CURVE_SECTION_INCHES;

//our direction vars
byte x_direction = 1;
byte y_direction = 1;
byte z_direction = 1;

//init our string processing
void init_process_string()
{
   //init our command
   for (byte i=0; i<COMMAND_SIZE; i++)
      palabra = 0;
   serial_count = 0;
}

//our feedrate variables.
float feedrate = 0.0;
long feedrate_micros = 0;

//Read the string and execute instructions
void process_string(char instruction[], int size)
{
   //the character / means delete block... used for comments and stuff.
   if (instruction[0] == '/')
   {
      Serial.println("ok");
      return;
   }

   //init baby!
   FloatPoint fp;
   fp.x = 0.0;
   fp.y = 0.0;
   fp.z = 0.0;

   byte code = 0;;
   

   //did we get a gcode?
   if (
      has_command('G', instruction, size) ||
      has_command('X', instruction, size) ||
      has_command('Y', instruction, size) ||
      has_command('Z', instruction, size)
   )
   {
      //which one?
      code = (int)search_string('G', instruction, size);
      
      // Get co-ordinates if required by the code type given
      switch (code)
      {
         case 0:
         case 1:
         case 2:
         case 3:
            if(abs_mode)
            {
               //we do it like this to save time. makes curves better.
               //eg. if only x and y are specified, we dont have to waste time looking up z.
               if (has_command('X', instruction, size))
                  fp.x = search_string('X', instruction, size);
               else
                  fp.x = current_units.x;
            
               if (has_command('Y', instruction, size))
                  fp.y = search_string('Y', instruction, size);
               else
                  fp.y = current_units.y;
            
               if (has_command('Z', instruction, size))
                  fp.z = search_string('Z', instruction, size);
               else
                  fp.z = current_units.z;
            }
            else
            {
               fp.x = search_string('X', instruction, size) + current_units.x;
               fp.y = search_string('Y', instruction, size) + current_units.y;
               fp.z = search_string('Z', instruction, size) + current_units.z;
            }
         break;
      }

      //do something!
      switch (code)
      {
         //Rapid Positioning
         //Linear Interpolation
         //these are basically the same thing.
         case 0:
         case 1:
            //set our target.
            set_target(fp.x, fp.y, fp.z);

            //do we have a set speed?
            if (has_command('G', instruction, size))
            {
               //adjust if we have a specific feedrate.
               if (code == 1)
               {
                  //how fast do we move?
                  feedrate = search_string('F', instruction, size);
                  if (feedrate > 0)
                     feedrate_micros = calculate_feedrate_delay(feedrate);
                  //nope, no feedrate
                  else
                     feedrate_micros = getMaxSpeed();
               }
               //use our max for normal moves.
               else
                  feedrate_micros = getMaxSpeed();
            }
            //nope, just coordinates!
            else
            {
               //do we have a feedrate yet?
               if (feedrate > 0)
                  feedrate_micros = calculate_feedrate_delay(feedrate);
               //nope, no feedrate
               else
                  feedrate_micros = getMaxSpeed();
            }

            //finally move.
            dda_move(feedrate_micros);
         break;
         
         //Clockwise arc
         case 2:
         //Counterclockwise arc
         case 3:
            FloatPoint cent;

            // Centre coordinates are always relative
            cent.x = search_string('I', instruction, size) + current_units.x;
            cent.y = search_string('J', instruction, size) + current_units.y;
            float angleA, angleB, angle, radius, length, aX, aY, bX, bY;

            aX = (current_units.x - cent.x);
            aY = (current_units.y - cent.y);
            bX = (fp.x - cent.x);
            bY = (fp.y - cent.y);
            
            if (code == 2) { // Clockwise
               angleA = atan2(bY, bX);
               angleB = atan2(aY, aX);
            } else { // Counterclockwise
               angleA = atan2(aY, aX);
               angleB = atan2(bY, bX);
            }

            // Make sure angleB is always greater than angleA
            // and if not add 2PI so that it is (this also takes
            // care of the special case of angleA == angleB,
            // ie we want a complete circle)
            if (angleB <= angleA) angleB += 2 * M_PI;
            angle = angleB - angleA;

            radius = sqrt(aX * aX + aY * aY);
            length = radius * angle;
            int steps, s, step;
            steps = (int) ceil(length / curve_section);

            FloatPoint newPoint;
            for (s = 1; s <= steps; s++) {
               step = (code == 3) ? s : steps - s; // Work backwards for CW
               newPoint.x = cent.x + radius * cos(angleA + angle * ((float) step / steps));
               newPoint.y = cent.y + radius * sin(angleA + angle * ((float) step / steps));
               set_target(newPoint.x, newPoint.y, fp.z);

               // Need to calculate rate for each section of curve
               if (feedrate > 0)
                  feedrate_micros = calculate_feedrate_delay(feedrate);
               else
                  feedrate_micros = getMaxSpeed();

               // Make step
               dda_move(feedrate_micros);
            }
   
         break;

         //Dwell
         case 4:
            delay((int)search_string('P', instruction, size));
         break;

         //Inches for Units
         case 20:
            x_units = X_STEPS_PER_INCH;
            y_units = Y_STEPS_PER_INCH;
            z_units = Z_STEPS_PER_INCH;
            curve_section = CURVE_SECTION_INCHES;
            
            calculate_deltas();
         break;

         //mm for Units
         case 21:
            x_units = X_STEPS_PER_MM;
            y_units = Y_STEPS_PER_MM;
            z_units = Z_STEPS_PER_MM;
            curve_section = CURVE_SECTION_MM;
            
            calculate_deltas();
         break;

         //go home.
         case 28:
            set_target(0.0, 0.0, 0.0);
            dda_move(getMaxSpeed());
         break;

         //go home via an intermediate point.
         case 30:
            fp.x = search_string('X', instruction, size);
            fp.y = search_string('Y', instruction, size);
            fp.z = search_string('Z', instruction, size);

            //set our target.
            if(abs_mode)
            {
               if (!has_command('X', instruction, size))
                  fp.x = current_units.x;
               if (!has_command('Y', instruction, size))
                  fp.y = current_units.y;
               if (!has_command('Z', instruction, size))
                  fp.z = current_units.z;
                  
               set_target(fp.x, fp.y, fp.z);
            }
            else
               set_target(current_units.x + fp.x, current_units.y + fp.y, current_units.z + fp.z);
            
            //go there.
            dda_move(getMaxSpeed());

            //go home.
            set_target(0.0, 0.0, 0.0);
            dda_move(getMaxSpeed());
         break;

         //Absolute Positioning
         case 90:
            abs_mode = true;
         break;

         //Incremental Positioning
         case 91:
            abs_mode = false;
         break;

         //Set as home
         case 92:
            set_position(0.0, 0.0, 0.0);
         break;

/*
         //Inverse Time Feed Mode
         case 93:

         break;  //TODO: add this

         //Feed per Minute Mode
         case 94:

         break;  //TODO: add this
*/

         default:
            Serial.print("huh? G");
            Serial.println(code,DEC);
      }
   }
   
   //find us an m code.
   if (has_command('M', instruction, size))
   {
      code = search_string('M', instruction, size);
      switch (code)
      {
         //TODO: this is a bug because search_string returns 0.  gotta fix that.
         case 0:
            true;
         break;
   
         
      
         
         default:
            Serial.print("Huh? M");
            Serial.println(code);
      }      
   }
   
   //tell our host we're done.
   Serial.println("ok");
//   Serial.println(line, DEC);
}

//look for the number that appears after the char key and return it
double search_string(char key, char instruction[], int string_size)
{
   char temp[10] = "";

   for (byte i=0; i<string_size; i++)
   {
      if (instruction == key)
      {
         i++;      
         int k = 0;
         while (i < string_size && k < 10)
         {
            if (instruction == 0 || instruction == ' ')
               break;

            temp[k] = instruction;
            i++;
            k++;
         }
         return strtod(temp, NULL);
      }
   }
   
   return 0;
}

//look for the command if it exists.
bool has_command(char key, char instruction[], int string_size)
{
   for (byte i=0; i<string_size; i++)
   {
      if (instruction == key)
         return true;
   }
   
   return false;
}



PART 1/2

Offline aventgpsTopic starter

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Re: My first CNC machine Arduino Mega controlled!!!!
« Reply #11 on: November 19, 2009, 10:39:44 PM »
PART 2/2


Quote

//init our variables
long max_delta;
long x_counter;
long y_counter;
long z_counter;
bool x_can_step;
bool y_can_step;
bool z_can_step;
int milli_delay;

void init_steppers()
{
   //turn them off to start.
   disable_steppers();
   
   //init our points.
   current_units.x = 0.0;
   current_units.y = 0.0;
   current_units.z = 0.0;
   target_units.x = 0.0;
   target_units.y = 0.0;
   target_units.z = 0.0;
   
   pinMode(X_STEP_PIN, OUTPUT);
   pinMode(X_DIR_PIN, OUTPUT);
   pinMode(X_ENABLE_PIN, OUTPUT);
   pinMode(X_MIN_PIN, INPUT);
   pinMode(X_MAX_PIN, INPUT);
   
   pinMode(Y_STEP_PIN, OUTPUT);
   pinMode(Y_DIR_PIN, OUTPUT);
   pinMode(Y_ENABLE_PIN, OUTPUT);
   pinMode(Y_MIN_PIN, INPUT);
   pinMode(Y_MAX_PIN, INPUT);
   
   pinMode(Z_STEP_PIN, OUTPUT);
   pinMode(Z_DIR_PIN, OUTPUT);
   pinMode(Z_ENABLE_PIN, OUTPUT);
   pinMode(Z_MIN_PIN, INPUT);
   pinMode(Z_MAX_PIN, INPUT);
   
   //figure our stuff.
   calculate_deltas();
}

void dda_move(long micro_delay)
{
   //enable our steppers
   digitalWrite(X_ENABLE_PIN, HIGH);
   digitalWrite(Y_ENABLE_PIN, HIGH);
   digitalWrite(Z_ENABLE_PIN, HIGH);
   
   //figure out our deltas
   max_delta = max(delta_steps.x, delta_steps.y);
   max_delta = max(delta_steps.z, max_delta);

   //init stuff.
   long x_counter = -max_delta/2;
   long y_counter = -max_delta/2;
   long z_counter = -max_delta/2;
   
   //our step flags
   bool x_can_step = 0;
   bool y_can_step = 0;
   bool z_can_step = 0;
   
   if (micro_delay >= 16383)
      milli_delay = micro_delay / 1000;
   else
      milli_delay = 0;

   //do our DDA line!
   do
   {
      x_can_step = can_step(X_MIN_PIN, X_MAX_PIN, current_steps.x, target_steps.x, x_direction);
      y_can_step = can_step(Y_MIN_PIN, Y_MAX_PIN, current_steps.y, target_steps.y, y_direction);
      z_can_step = can_step(Z_MIN_PIN, Z_MAX_PIN, current_steps.z, target_steps.z, z_direction);

      if (x_can_step)
      {
         x_counter += delta_steps.x;
         
         if (x_counter > 0)
         {
            do_step(X_STEP_PIN, X_DIR_PIN, x_direction);
            x_counter -= max_delta;
            
            if (x_direction)
               current_steps.x++;
            else
               current_steps.x--;
         }
      }

      if (y_can_step)
      {
         y_counter += delta_steps.y;
         
         if (y_counter > 0)
         {
            do_step(Y_STEP_PIN, Y_DIR_PIN, y_direction);
            y_counter -= max_delta;

            if (y_direction)
               current_steps.y++;
            else
               current_steps.y--;
         }
      }
      
      if (z_can_step)
      {
         z_counter += delta_steps.z;
         
         if (z_counter > 0)
         {
            do_step(Z_STEP_PIN, Z_DIR_PIN, z_direction);
            z_counter -= max_delta;
            
            if (z_direction)
               current_steps.z++;
            else
               current_steps.z--;
         }
      }
      
      
            
      //wait for next step.
      if (milli_delay > 0)
         delay(milli_delay);         
      else
         delayMicroseconds(micro_delay);
   }
   while (x_can_step || y_can_step || z_can_step);
   
   //set our points to be the same
   current_units.x = target_units.x;
   current_units.y = target_units.y;
   current_units.z = target_units.z;
   calculate_deltas();
}

bool can_step(byte min_pin, byte max_pin, long current, long target, byte direction)
{
   //stop us if we're on target
   if (target == current)
      return false;
   //stop us if we're at home and still going
   else if (read_switch(min_pin) && !direction)
      return false;
   //stop us if we're at max and still going
   else if (read_switch(max_pin) && direction)
      return false;

   //default to being able to step
   return true;
}

void do_step(byte pinA, byte pinB, byte dir)
{
        switch (dir << 2 | digitalRead(pinA) << 1 | digitalRead(pinB)) {
            case 0: /* 0 00 -> 10 */
            case 5: /* 1 01 -> 11 */
                digitalWrite(pinA, HIGH);
                break;
            case 1: /* 0 01 -> 00 */
            case 7: /* 1 11 -> 10 */
                digitalWrite(pinB, LOW);
                break;
            case 2: /* 0 10 -> 11 */
            case 4: /* 1 00 -> 01 */   
                digitalWrite(pinB, HIGH);
                break;
            case 3: /* 0 11 -> 01 */
            case 6: /* 1 10 -> 00 */
                digitalWrite(pinA, LOW);
                break;
        }
   delayMicroseconds(5);
}


bool read_switch(byte pin)
{
   //dual read as crude debounce
   
   if ( SENSORS_INVERTING )
      return !digitalRead(pin) && !digitalRead(pin);
   else
      return digitalRead(pin) && digitalRead(pin);
}

long to_steps(float steps_per_unit, float units)
{
   return steps_per_unit * units;
}

void set_target(float x, float y, float z)
{
   target_units.x = x;
   target_units.y = y;
   target_units.z = z;
   
   calculate_deltas();
}

void set_position(float x, float y, float z)
{
   current_units.x = x;
   current_units.y = y;
   current_units.z = z;
   
   calculate_deltas();
}

void calculate_deltas()
{
   //figure our deltas.
   delta_units.x = abs(target_units.x - current_units.x);
   delta_units.y = abs(target_units.y - current_units.y);
   delta_units.z = abs(target_units.z - current_units.z);
            
   //set our steps current, target, and delta
   current_steps.x = to_steps(x_units, current_units.x);
   current_steps.y = to_steps(y_units, current_units.y);
   current_steps.z = to_steps(z_units, current_units.z);

   target_steps.x = to_steps(x_units, target_units.x);
   target_steps.y = to_steps(y_units, target_units.y);
   target_steps.z = to_steps(z_units, target_units.z);

   delta_steps.x = abs(target_steps.x - current_steps.x);
   delta_steps.y = abs(target_steps.y - current_steps.y);
   delta_steps.z = abs(target_steps.z - current_steps.z);
   
   //what is our direction
   x_direction = (target_units.x >= current_units.x);
   y_direction = (target_units.y >= current_units.y);
   z_direction = (target_units.z >= current_units.z);

   //set our direction pins as well
   digitalWrite(X_DIR_PIN, x_direction);
   digitalWrite(Y_DIR_PIN, y_direction);
   digitalWrite(Z_DIR_PIN, z_direction);
}


long calculate_feedrate_delay(float feedrate)
{
   //how long is our line length?
   float distance = sqrt(delta_units.x*delta_units.x + delta_units.y*delta_units.y + delta_units.z*delta_units.z);
   long master_steps = 0;
   
   //find the dominant axis.
   if (delta_steps.x > delta_steps.y)
   {
      if (delta_steps.z > delta_steps.x)
         master_steps = delta_steps.z;
      else
         master_steps = delta_steps.x;
   }
   else
   {
      if (delta_steps.z > delta_steps.y)
         master_steps = delta_steps.z;
      else
         master_steps = delta_steps.y;
   }

   //calculate delay between steps in microseconds.  this is sort of tricky, but not too bad.
   //the formula has been condensed to save space.  here it is in english:
   // distance / feedrate * 60000000.0 = move duration in microseconds
   // move duration / master_steps = time between steps for master axis.

   return ((distance * 600000000.0) / feedrate) / master_steps;   
}

long getMaxSpeed()
{
   if (delta_steps.z > 0)
      return calculate_feedrate_delay(FAST_Z_FEEDRATE);
   else
      return calculate_feedrate_delay(FAST_XY_FEEDRATE);
}

void disable_steppers()
{
   //enable our steppers
   digitalWrite(X_ENABLE_PIN, LOW);
   digitalWrite(Y_ENABLE_PIN, LOW);
   digitalWrite(Z_ENABLE_PIN, LOW);
}




I MODIFIED REPRAP GCODE INTERPRETER FOR MY  NEEDS.....

Offline aventgpsTopic starter

  • Jr. Member
  • **
  • Posts: 21
  • Helpful? 0
Re: My first CNC machine Arduino Mega controlled!!!!
« Reply #12 on: November 30, 2009, 10:16:51 PM »
my new machine...


 


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