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You don't really need to make any hardware changes. just hook the led's with resistors up to the digital pins!That's the hardware side anyway, with the software, just turn the pins high when you want them to turn on.
Well you don't program the LED's so the programmer doesn't need access to them. The LED's will need to be connected to digital output pins on the micro controller. Off hand I don't know how many left over pins the micro on the $50 robot has. (Just to lazy to look right now) To do a 4X4 matrix you will need 8 output pins available on the micro. There are all kinds of projects on the net for building an LED matrix so Google is your friend. Another thing to Google would be POV (persistence of vision) displays since most LED matrix's use that principle. Yes you have to do some research but it's good for you trust me. Would love to see video of this thing in action once you get it done you could have the LED matrix actually giving you feed back as to what your robot is "thinking" hehe.
Not sure I understand your picture, but I looked it up. However, he may find it easier both making the circuit and programming it, to just wire them straight rather than have to use the extra sophistication he would need for the pov approach, since he does have enough ports to hook them up direct.
According to the data sheet for the ATMEGA8 can provide a MAXIMUM of 40 mA per IO pin.
According to the data sheet for the ATMEGA8 can provide a MAXIMUM of 40 mA per IO pin