*David R. Steward*

- Published in print:
- 2020
- Published Online:
- November 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780198856788
- eISBN:
- 9780191890031
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198856788.003.0003
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The mathematical functions associated with analytic elements may be formulated using a complex function $\Omega$ of a complex variable ${\zcomplex}$. Complex formulation of analytic elements is ...
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The mathematical functions associated with analytic elements may be formulated using a complex function $\Omega$ of a complex variable ${\zcomplex}$. Complex formulation of analytic elements is introduced in Section 3.1 for exact solutions obtained by embedding point elements that generate divergence, circulation, or velocity within a uniform vector field. Influence functions for analytic elements with circular geometry are obtained using Taylor and Laurent series expansions in Section 3.2, and conformal mapping extends this formulation to analytic elements with the geometry of ellipses (Section 3.3). The Courant's Sewing Theorem is employed in Section 3.4 to develop solutions for interface conditions across straight line segments, and the Joukowsky transformation extends methods to circular arcs and wings (Section 3.5), which satisfy a Kutta condition of non-singular vector field at their trailing edges. Vector fields with spatially distributed divergence and curl are formulated using the complex variable ${\zcomplex}$ with its complex conjugate $\overline{\zcomplex}$ in Section 3.6, and the complex conjugate is further employed in the Kolosov formulas (Section 3.7) to solve force deformation problems for analytic elements with traction or displacement specified boundary conditions.Less

The mathematical functions associated with analytic elements may be formulated using a complex function $\Omega$ of a complex variable ${\zcomplex}$. Complex formulation of analytic elements is introduced in Section 3.1 for exact solutions obtained by embedding point elements that generate divergence, circulation, or velocity within a uniform vector field. Influence functions for analytic elements with circular geometry are obtained using Taylor and Laurent series expansions in Section 3.2, and conformal mapping extends this formulation to analytic elements with the geometry of ellipses (Section 3.3). The Courant's Sewing Theorem is employed in Section 3.4 to develop solutions for interface conditions across straight line segments, and the Joukowsky transformation extends methods to circular arcs and wings (Section 3.5), which satisfy a Kutta condition of non-singular vector field at their trailing edges. Vector fields with spatially distributed divergence and curl are formulated using the complex variable ${\zcomplex}$ with its complex conjugate $\overline{\zcomplex}$ in Section 3.6, and the complex conjugate is further employed in the Kolosov formulas (Section 3.7) to solve force deformation problems for analytic elements with traction or displacement specified boundary conditions.

*David R. Steward*

- Published in print:
- 2020
- Published Online:
- November 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780198856788
- eISBN:
- 9780191890031
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198856788.003.0005
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Solutions to interface problems may be developed using analytic elements with mathematical solutions to the Laplace equation developed by singular integral equations. This formulation leads to ...
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Solutions to interface problems may be developed using analytic elements with mathematical solutions to the Laplace equation developed by singular integral equations. This formulation leads to solutions with discontinuities occurring across line segments, where the potential or stream function is discontinuous across double layer elements in Section 5.2, and the normal or tangential component of the vector field is discontinuous across single layer elements in Section 5.3. Examples illustrate a broad range of solutions to interface conditions possible with these elements. Series expansions are used to represent the far-field at larger distances from elements in Section 5.4, which leads to higher-order elements with nearly exact solutions and also provides a simpler representation for contiguous strings of adjacent elements. Such strings of elements are used with polygon elements in 5.5 to solve conditions along the interfaces of heterogeneities, and to provide a common series expansion to represent the far-field for a group of neighboring elements. Methods are extended to analytic elements with curvilinear geometry using conformal mappings (Section 5.6) and to three-dimensional fields in Section 5.7.Less

Solutions to interface problems may be developed using analytic elements with mathematical solutions to the Laplace equation developed by singular integral equations. This formulation leads to solutions with discontinuities occurring across line segments, where the potential or stream function is discontinuous across double layer elements in Section 5.2, and the normal or tangential component of the vector field is discontinuous across single layer elements in Section 5.3. Examples illustrate a broad range of solutions to interface conditions possible with these elements. Series expansions are used to represent the far-field at larger distances from elements in Section 5.4, which leads to higher-order elements with nearly exact solutions and also provides a simpler representation for contiguous strings of adjacent elements. Such strings of elements are used with polygon elements in 5.5 to solve conditions along the interfaces of heterogeneities, and to provide a common series expansion to represent the far-field for a group of neighboring elements. Methods are extended to analytic elements with curvilinear geometry using conformal mappings (Section 5.6) and to three-dimensional fields in Section 5.7.