Ever have a need for your robot to stop quickly? Like who put that cliff/wall there anyways? Or perhaps maybe your robot loses control while going down hills? There are three ways to brake DC motors. Each way has it's own benefits and draw backs, so I will go over each for you to decide which is best.
So how do you short the leads when it is on a robot? Simple. Connect a MOSFET (transistor) and a relay as shown. The MOSFET turns on the relay, which creates a short between the motor leads. Turn the MOSFET on (set C high) with your microcontroller when you want to brake. Basically your motor will still have an H-bridge for normal control, but when you brake you turn the H-bridge off and use the braking circuit. And don't forget the heatsink and flyback diode! Important, or your circuit will melt/blow up.
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